In my previous post, I discussed some of the basics of argumentation, the study of which is known as Logic. I’m posting here the answer key to the examples at the end of that last discussion. The conclusions are underlined, and the indicator words are in bold. I label the types of indicator words in brackets at the end of the example.

1. California is more populous than New York; New York is more populous than Ohio; therefore, California is more populous than Ohio. [Conclusion indicator]

2. He won’t be driving recklessly, for he only does that when he’s upset, and he’s not upset. [Premise indicator]

3. Bill’s in trouble. He shot a deer, and they’re not in season. [No indicator words]

4. Toward evening, clouds formed and the sky grew darker; then the storm broke. [Not an argument.]

5. Since all seniors are immodest, and all arrogant people are immodest, all seniors are arrogant. [Premise indicator]

6. Lincoln could not have met Washington. Washington was dead before Lincoln was born. [No indicator words]

7. Terry, Sherry and Barry were all carded at JJ’s, and they all look as though they’re about thirty. Chances are I’ll be carded too. [No indicator words]

8. Jones won’t plead guilty to a misdemeanor, and if he won’t plead guilty, then he’ll be tried on a felony charge. Therefore, he’ll be tried on a felony charge. [Conclusion indicator]

9. I guess he doesn’t have a thing to do. Why else would he waste his time watching daytime TV? [No indicator words]

10. Some pesticides must be unsafe for humans to consume, since some pesticides are toxic, and whatever is toxic is unsafe for most humans to consume. [Premise indicator]

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